Hydrosphere. Oceans.

Hydrosphere – the water shell of the Earth . It includes all the chemically bound water, regardless of the state of aggregation. Most of the hydrosphere amount of water oceans (96.6%), 1.7% – this isground water , about the same falls on glaciers and permanent snow and less than 0.01% – the surfacewater of land ( rivers , lakes , swamps ). A slight amount of water contained in the atmosphere and is a part of all living things. The hydrosphere is one. Its unity in the common origin of all the natural waters of the Earth’s mantle, in the unity of their development, the spatial continuity in the relationship of natural waters in the world’s water cycle .

The global water cycle process is a continuous movement of water under the influence of solar energy and gravity, covering the hydrosphere, atmosphere, lithosphere , and living organisms. The water cycle consists of evaporation from the oceans, water vapor transport by air currents, its condensation in the atmosphere, precipitation, infiltration, and their surface and subsurface drainage of land in the ocean. In the World of the water cycle is a gradual upgrade of all parts of the hydrosphere. This process requires different time intervals: Groundwater updated for hundreds, thousands or millions of years, polar glaciers – to 8 – 15 thousand years for the World Ocean 2.5 – 3 thousand years old, insular, stagnant lake – 200 – 300 years , flow in a few years, and the river for 12 – 14 days.

Oceans. Under the oceans to understand Earth’s oceans:

Pacific Ocean – the largest and deepest ocean of the Earth;
Atlantic – the second largest ocean of the Earth;
Indian Ocean – in his area could easily accommodate three of the continent . Almost entirely located in the southern hemisphere;
Arctic – the smallest, coldest oceans of our planet .
Southern Ocean .
The volume of water oceans 1.338 billion km. cube., its average depth is 3700 m, maximum – 11 022 m

Waters of the World Ocean have certain properties, and one of them is water salinity .

In the oceanic water dissolved almost all the known substance on earth, but in different quantities.

Most of them are due to the small number of hard to detect. The main part of dissolved salts in ocean water – chloride (89%) and sulfates (almost 11%), much less carbonate (0.5%). Sodium chloride (NaCl) gives the water a salty taste, salt, magnesium (Mg, Cl) – bitter. The total amount of salts dissolved in water, determines the salinity of the water. It is measured in thousandths – ppm.

The average salinity of the ocean about 35 ppm, ie, for each kilogram of water contains an average of 35 grams of salt. Salinity depends primarily on the ratio of precipitation and evaporation. Reduce the salinity of river water and the water of melting ice. In the open ocean salinity distribution has a zonal character. Atequatorial latitudes , where much rain falls – she lowered in tropical – increased due to high evaporation and low rainfall. In temperate and polar latitudes salinity decreases again.

Ocean water has a high solvent power, so the ocean absorbs and releases huge amounts of gases. In water, the oceans and seas of dissolved oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia and methane.

The temperature of water . Depends on the latitude and distributed on the surface of area . The zoning is disturbed by ocean currents, the influence of the land, constant winds. The highest average annualtemperature of water (27 – 28 degrees) are observed in the equatorial latitudes. With increasing latitude reduces the quantity of solar radiation , water temperature and ocean drops to 0 degrees and even lower in the polar regions. The average temperature of the water in the oceans 17.5 degrees.

Temperature changes with depth. At the bottom it does not exceed the temperature of 2 degrees. Water has high heat capacity, and therefore accumulates in the ocean a lot of heat. Only the top 10-meter layer of ocean water contains more heat than the entire atmosphere. The freezing point of water with an average salinity of 35 ppm to 1.8 degrees below 0.

The movement of ocean waters. The water of the ocean is in constant motion. The movement of water occurs not only on the surface, but with depth, down to the bottom layers. The main reason for unrest surface of the oceans – the wind . As a result of submarine earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur seismic waves – a tsunami . Hit the beach , the waves cause catastrophic destruction, claiming thousands of lives.

Under the action of forces of attraction of the moon and sun , periodic fluctuations in the ocean – tidalmovements of ocean waters.

Flow. Currents in the ocean caused by the wind (or wind drift) are due to different heights of water level (sink), and varying its density (density). By the properties of water flow are: cold (eg, flow of westerly winds, Labrador) and warm (the North Atlantic, Gulf Stream).

The organic world ocean. This world is very diverse. The ocean is home to about 160 thousand species of animals and more than 10 thousand species of algae. By type of habitats and lifestyles of marine organisms into three groups:

Plankton – passively moving unicellular algae (phytoplankton) and animals (zooplankton) – unicellular, crustaceans, jellyfish;
nekton – actively moving animals (fish, whales, turtles, cephalopods, etc.;
Benthos – organisms that live on the bottom (brown and red algae, mollusks, crustaceans, sea stars , etc.).
The distribution of life in the surface layer of ocean water has a clearly defined zonal character. The greatest productivity differ moderate latitudes.

Resources of the oceans . There are biological, mineral and energy resources. The scale of the use and value of the leading place is occupied by nekton. The majority of its biomass is represented by a fish. Ocean water is called “Liquid ore.” In the industrial scale of it is recovered only sodium, chloride, magnesium and bromine. Becoming increasingly important desalination of sea water. Richly mineral resources the bottom of the ocean. These include the: ore deposits of coal , iron ore , oil and gas. There are nodules of manganese, phosphorus, placer diamonds .